Durdona Abdushukurovna ABDUAZIZOVA
Higher military customs Institute
OPTIMIZATION OF LINGUO-CULTURAL COMPETENCE OF FUTURE TEACHERS OF FOREIGN LANGUAGE
Мақолада олий ўқув юрти таълими жараёнида талабаларни лингвомаданиятга тайёрлаш муаммолари ўрганилган. Асосий эътибор тилшунос мутахассислар янги авлодининг хорижий тилни, этнографик ва лингвомамлакатшуносликка оид билимларни эгаллаш, ўз ҳис-туйғуларини ўрганилаётган тил эгаларига хос мимика ва хатти-ҳаракатлардан фойдаланиб ифодалаш кўникмаларини эгаллаш, тили ўрганилаётган мамлакатларнинг маданий меросидан фойдалана билиш каби касбий компетенцияларини шакллантиришга қаратилган.
В статье рассмотрена проблема лингвокультурной подготовки студентов в процессе обучения в высших учебных заведениях. Уделено внимание формированию профессиональных компетенций специалистов-лингвистов нового поколения: владение иностранным языком, этнографические и лингвострановедческие знания, навыки владения эмоциями, мимикой, жестами носителей языка, умение использовать культурное наследие стран изучаемого языка и др.
The article considers the problem of the linguistic and cultural preparation of students in the learning process in higher education institutions. Attention is paid to the formation of professional competencies of specialists-linguists of the new generation: foreign language, ethnographic and linguistic knowledge, knowledge of emotions, facial expressions and gestures of the native speakers, the ability to use the cultural heritage of the target language, etc.
Калит сўзлар: касбий компетенция, лингвомаданий компетенциялар, мутахассис-тилшунос.
Ключевые слова: профессиональная компетентность, лингвокультурные компетенции, специалист-лингвист.
Key words: professional competence, lingua-cultural competence, specialist and linguist.
Professional training of students – future language teachers include the students with basics of general and special knowledge and their application in practice, mastering skills for the successful performance of professional tasks of cognitive, practical to be used in future professional activity, the development of important for the future linguists professional qualities.
The modern educational situation involves a number of concepts aimed at solving the problems of professional training: student-oriented, contextual approach to the content and forms of organization of educational process, a holistic approach to the organization of the educational process; technological approach, creativity.
The above-mentioned approaches in the educational process of training students of linguistics are interrelated and interdependent. Given the specific linguistic preparation of students, it is also necessary to distinguish the following approaches: competence, linguistic cultural, linguistic, and communication; socio-cultural approach. Data analysis approaches to training linguists shows that all scientists agree on the presence in foreign language education components such as language and socio-cultural knowledge, speech, sociolinguistic and socio-cultural skills.
Thus, the above-mentioned approaches play an important role in the preparation of a linguistic student, providing a personal level of mastering the skill, identifying and shaping in high school creative individuality and professionalism of the future specialist[4; 5; 7].
Foreign language as a subject will be able to fully perform its functions only if all aspects of the process of learning a foreign language, learning other languages, teaching foreign-language skills, learning to communicate, the definition of professional vocabulary, learning professional vocabulary, the learning of foreign language speech activity with the introduction of professional vocabulary, learning to communicate in professional language will be treated on equal terms, which means their equality in terms of its importance for the formation of the individual student.
In the context of the problem of formation of professional competence of the future specialist- linguist with the new socio-political and economic conditions the ability and willingness to professional foreign language communication acquires a special meaning and becomes an important part of training highly qualified specialists-linguists as the participants of intercultural communication.
According to some researchers, that professional competence is one of the most significant factors that can ensure sustainable factors of the future specialist in all fields of professional activity. Obvious and the fact that it is a necessary condition for successful activity of students of future linguists, including the development of professional knowledge, skills and abilities required to perform professional activities.
The necessity of optimization of professional training of students-linguists, the formation of their professional competence, the need for a pedagogical rationale for new approaches and directions of professional training of future teachers of foreign language in modern conditions, in my opinion, require further research. Thus, the basis for the identity formation of foreign language teacher of the new generation was changing the content of higher linguistic education, providing its fundamentalization, humanization, and differentiation, as well as the development and implementation of innovative pedagogical technologies.
In the process of educational activity is the formation of a subject of activity, which is largely due to individual differences and aim at holistic development and improvement of all its essential powers. The researchers concluded that training activities at the University is holistic if it includes the following stages: the emergence of needs, goal setting, planning and specific execution plan, self control and satisfaction of needs by assigning product performance. This educational activity has not only educational, but also socializing functions. This takes professional development and formation of personality of students by means of training activities, namely:
1) developing emotional and evaluative attitude to the world, feelings, emotions;
2) provides personal and professional self-determination of students, their social adaptation;
3) is formed by the active communicative position of the student as the subject of intercultural interaction, as a participant of integration processes in the world community;
4) develop such personal qualities as sociability, culture of dialogue, tolerance, commitment, ability to work in cooperation, responsibility, independence, creative activity;
5) ensures the development of intellectual and cognitive abilities, in particular abilities and preparedness to continuous learning a foreign language, to further educate ourselves with it;
6) improving the experience of productive creative activity, acquired experience in research activities using the target language;
7) acquired professional experience in the areas of basic education, obtained in high school by profession.
Thus, language education provides quite ample opportunities for the formation of personality of students-linguists, because originally not only focused on a very specialized area of professional activity.
It is advisable in this regard, to determine our position on the principal components of professional activity of an EFL teacher. We can distinguish in the professional activity of teachers of foreign languages a constructive activity (selection, preparation and design of educational work), organizational activity (in relation to their own pedagogical work and behaviour and students’ activities) and communicative activities (pedagogical communication in its various forms)[3; 6]. To implement these types of teaching activities need high-quality and comprehensive training, and a major component of such training a teacher of a foreign language is traditionally considered to be professional knowledge of a foreign language.
Modernity requires taking into account international and European experience, but also define the boundaries of its application and the specifications in our conditions. At the University in teaching foreign language special purpose is professionally oriented education. It inevitably dictates the specifics in the training of linguists and historians, in this case of German scholars, for whom a foreign language has the status of a language specialty.
In addition, the foreign language teacher must have a broad knowledge of the history of the culture of the target language, understand the intricacies of ethnographic and linguistic nature (in particular, know the customs, traditions, feasts, religious ceremonies of native speakers), hold the main paralinguistic margin associated with a specific foreign culture (to understand the peculiarities of facial expressions, gestures of native speakers), to have information about the musical heritage of peoples, speakers of a language (including know and be able to play folk songs).
These components of a broad lingua-cultural competence of foreign language teacher are designed to help to supplement existing materials, to help not only to diversify the process of language teaching, but also to assist him in the process of familiarizing students with features national mentality of the native speakers of a certain language, carrying out, thus, the dialogue of cultures, which have lately become an integral part of didactics in Uzbekistan and European countries.
In relation to the practical activity of lingua-cultural competence implies reliance on modern methodological training, which aims to provide the foreign language teacher the possibility to solve specific tasks of teaching different types of speech activity in a particular learning environment. Teaching practice provides the interconnection and unity of the didactic and methodical training of students-linguists, is an important and responsible stage of preparation of future teachers of foreign languages to professional pedagogical activity[1, 5].
To improve the modern system of formation of students the necessary professional knowledge, skills and abilities in the process of language training in higher education institution, it is appropriate to adapt to our conditions elements of the pedagogical experience of Western European educational institutions, providing training of future specialists in foreign languages as a professional activity, organization of students’ self study on development and self-development of their professional identity, providing future professionals training opportunities in the countries of the studied language.
Modern foreign language teaching is impossible without the development of its students studying foreign language culture. The process of foreign language teaching is characterized by the fact that not only provides knowledge, forms skills, but can have a direct influence on the formation of personality. Learning a foreign language, a person simultaneously gets to the new national culture.
Linguistic education should be the environment which lays the foundations of broadcast culture and values.
Increased motivation to learn a foreign language, vocabulary professional terms with the needs and interests of the student, in our opinion, will become a more conscious learning a foreign language. Our practical experience of teaching a foreign language of students-linguists showed that it is a lexical component really is an incentive to increase the motivation of the primary and secondary stage of learning a foreign language. Knowledge of a foreign language in general together with professional contributes to the development of freedom and emancipation in the communication between people, giving them the ability to act independently and to realize personal communicative intentions.
Optimization of professional training of students-linguists suggests, in our view, the definition of conditions of effective learning of students – the future teachers of a foreign language – system of linguistic, sociolinguistic, cultural, strategic and discourse knowledge, abilities and skills that enable professionals to communicate effectively in specific socially determined communicative situations and skills, and the ability to apply existing knowledge in the field of pedagogy, psychology and methods of teaching foreign language.
As a basis for optimizing the content of professional language training in the University we consider the optimal development of the corresponding branch of education in accordance with the principles of functioning of vocational education: continuous and discrete at the same time; standardization and variability; the universalization and autonomy; the humanization and professionalization; diversification and status certainty; the fundamental and pragmatic approach; democratization and sustainability; globalization and regionalization.
- Азарова Н.Л. Формирование творческой индивидуальности будущего учителя в процессе оптимального сочетания разных видов деятельности // Образование и общество. 2001. № 3 (9).
- Клименко Н.В. Социально-культурное формирование личности студентов в процессе языкового образования: Автореф. дис. … канд. пед. наук. М., 2007.
- Кузьмина Н.В., Реан А.Л. Профессионализм педагогической деятельности. СПб., 1993.
- Леонтьев А.А. Психолого-педагогические основы обновления методики преподавания иностранных языков. М., 1998.
- Соловова Е.Н. Проблемы подготовки учителя иностранного языка в контексте обновления системы непрерывного профессионально-педагогического образования // Интеграционные процессы в образовании и роль иностранного языка в подготовке учителя: Тезисы Всерос. научнo.-практической конференции. М., 2001.
- Mitchell, Rosamond (1994). The communicative approach to language teaching”. In Swarbick, Ann.Teaching Modern Languages. New York: Routledge.
- Richards, Jack C.; Rodgers, Theodore S. (2001).Approaches and Methods in Language Teaching(2nd ed.). Cambridge, New York: Cambridge University Press.