Guli Ismoil qizi ERGASHEVA
Uzbek State University of World Languages
PROCESS OF TRANSTERMINOLOGIZATION IN GENDER TERM SYSTEM
Мақола замонавий тилшунослик терминология масалаларига бағишланган. Хусусан, гендерга оид андроцентризм терминининг транстерминологизацияга учраши муаммоси тадқиқ этилади.
В статье рассмотрены основные проблемы общей теории транстерминологизации разноструктурных языков. Исследуется процесс транстерминологизации гендерного термина – андроцентризм. Отмечается также, что получение новых данных для терминоведения невозможно без всестороннего учета влияния транстерминологизации на развитие терминосистем.
The article deals with the basic problems of the general theory of transterminologization of different languages. The process of gender transterminologization of the term androcentrism hasbeen studied. It is also noted that enriching the term system theory is not possible without full consideration of linguistic and extralinguistic factors.
Калит сўзлар: гендер, термин, гендерга оид термин, андроцентризм, гиноцентризм, лингвистик ва экстралингвистик омиллар.
Ключевые слова: гендер, термин, гендерный термин, андроцентризм, гиноцентризм, лингвистические и экстралингвистические факторы.
Key words: gender, term, gender marked term, androcentrism, ginocentrism, linguistic and extralinguistic factors.
A keen interest of scientists to the term system is due to the fact, that it is the most rapidly developing sub system of language; hence it is formed and developed under the influence of the language system and the increased impact of various extra-linguistic factors.
However, there are many controversial issues and insufficiently studied problems. This is not surprising since the study of each specially applied field does not only respond to a number of issues but also gives rise to the others. Each new term system shows some differences from those already studied. Consequently, a general term theory is being defined more precisely.
The term system of modern languages attracts the attention of linguists for more than half a century. However, various aspects of the general term theory are still actual in modern linguistics, as well as in the aspect of gender.
Regarding gender issues in humanities, the theory of separation of biological and cultural sexes has achieved a relatively clearness. While sex is considered in the sphere of biology and physiology, gender is regarded as the subject area of psychological, social and cultural researches.
Separation of biological and cultural components in the study of issues related to gender gave an impetus to the formation of a special trend in the modern humanities – Gender Studies.
The term gender has penetrated into all the humanities – philosophy, sociology, psychology, history, linguistics, literature, etc. constantly being changed and enriched. The term itself is borrowed from linguistics in the form of grammatical gender, at the same time being returned in the context referring to the cultural characteristics of men and women.
Gender is used in the broadest sense in psychology, sexology meaning any mental or behavioral characteristics associated with masculinity and femininity and presumably distinguishing men from women, i.e. sexual characteristics or differences.
In the social sciences especially in Feminism, «gender» has a more narrow meaning, denoting a «social sex», i.e. socially determined roles, identities and activities of men and women, not dependent on biological sex differences, but social organization.
The need for lexicographical description of gender studies terminology in the form of terminological dictionaries has been realized for a long time in gender community, which includes a brief definition or descriptive characteristics from different lexicographical sources – psychology, sociology, economics, philosophy, political sciences, cultural studies and linguistics, literature, history, law, and etc.
Problems of transition of gender terms from one term system to another is one of the most complicated problems of terminology due to the heterogeneity of the units, introducing into highly specialized term system, the ambiguity of description and naming the very process in modern linguistics, a poor knowledge of the study of such units in adapting term system and semantic changes occurring in the process of transition of the nominees, all of which are designated by the term –transterminologization.
The importance to identify a specificity of each language process in different term systems is vital for modern linguistics. The study of language phenomena in the term systems of different languages, where the correlated term systems develop under the influence of the same and different extra-linguistic factors, contribute to the solution of several issues in general term theory. Thus, the study of nominative units, which have undergone the process of transterminologization in gender science and recorded in dictionaries and glossaries of gender terms, seems to be very actual. Consequently, the specifics of transterminologization process of nominative units of other term systems introduced to gender terminology of Russian, English and Uzbek languages are being studied.
The main point of the research comprises a comprehensive study of transterminologization process based on factual linguistic materials – dictionaries and glossaries of gender terms. The following specific problems are to be solved:
- To review existing in modern linguistics views on the formation of terminological and conceptual apparatus characterizing the reception process of nominative units from different term systems.
- To consider the relationship between polysemy and homonymy and identify their specificity in the term system, as the problem of transterminologization relates to the more general problem of language theory – the problem of semantic identity of words, i.e., characterizing linguistic factors of transterminologization process.
- To determine how typical is transterminologization process towards the correlated terminological systems of different languages.
- To identify extralinguistic factors of transterminologization and sources of replenishment gender terminology in Russian, English and Uzbek languages.
- To identify a structural diversity of trans-adopted units in gender terminology of Russian, English and Uzbek languages, to determine their importance in gender terminology and the nature of changes in their semantics.
Carried out research on transterminologization of gender marked terms has led to the following theoretical conclusions:
- Transterminologization is one of the productive ways of updating modern highly specialized term system in different languages, as well as gender terminology.
- Homonymous nominative units are formed in the process of transterminologization saving their common semantic component in different interdisciplinary term systems.
- Transterminologization is a reflection of objective trends in the development of scientific knowledge in the processes of integration and differentiation. These branches of knowledge apply to the gender aspect of science, providing gender regulation of various kinds of social activities and production.
- Both native and borrowed terms may undergo the process of transterminologization.
- Transterminologization can be either explicit (in this case trans-adopted nominee acquires a new definition), or implicit. In the latter case, terms may not take any definition due to the transparency of their meaning. However, in this case, it is preferable to talk about their conceptual content, as it enters a new concept sphere.
In terms of the concept of “androcentrism (Greek, «andro-«, «man, male») which is the practice, conscious or otherwise, of placing male human beings or the masculine point of view at the center of one’s view of the world and its culture and history. The term androcentrism has been introduced to the linguistics from social sciences as a concept highlighting the dominance of masculinity or male world picture in the language, i.e. a linguistic fixation on masculinity. According to Perkins Gilman, masculine patterns of life and masculine mindsets claimed universality while female ones were considered as deviance .
In comparison with gynocentrism, which places the focus on the female, the term androcentrism has actively been used in all spheres of science. Language plays an important role in reproduction of androcentrism, hence a linguistic picture of the world captures and reproduces the world from the male point of view [1, 7]. There are the following features of androcentrism:
- Identification of the concepts man and human being. They are denoted by one word in many languages of Europe: man in English, French homme, Mann in German.
- Nominations of feminine nouns are usually derived from the male, and not vice versa. They are often associated by negative estimations. The use of the male designation to the woman referent is acceptable and enhancing her status. On the contrary, ascribing feminine nouns to the masculine ones carries a negative assessment.
- Masculine nouns can be used unspecified, that is, to refer to the either sexes. Thus, according to the feminist criticism of language women are generally ignored in the language in the majority of cases.
- Agreement on the syntactic level is based in the form of grammatical gender of appropriate parts of speech, not on the real sex of the referent.
- Femininity and masculinity are sharply separated and opposed to each other, in a qualitative (positive and negative evaluation) and quantitative (male’s universally dominance) respect, which leads to gender asymmetries formation of [2, 9].
Thus, androcentrism as a homonymous nominative unit is formed in the process of transterminologization saving its common semantic component in different interdisciplinary term systems. Moreover, transterminologization in gender terminology gives rise to cross-sectoral terms, seme composition of which doesn’t endure significant changes, hence only one gender differential seme comes to existence.
- Ergasheva G.I. Iingliz va o’zbek tillari frazeologism va paremiyalarida gender aspektining qiyosiy tipologik tadqiqi // Comparative-typological research of gender aspect in phraseological units and proverbs of English and Uzbek languages. Ph.D. thesis. – Tashkent, 2011. –29 p.
- Кирилина А. В. Гендер: лингвистические аспекты. – М.: Институт cоциологии РАН, 1999. –188 c.
- Хижняк С. П. Новое в исследовании терминологических систем (на примере юридической терминологии)//http://izvuz_gn.pnzgu.ru/files/izvuz_gn.pnzgu.ru/12108.pdf
- Википедия http://en.academic.ru/dic.nsf/enwiki/152935.