Uzbek State World Languages University
READING IN A FOREIGN LANGUAGE AND ITS ROLE IN TEACHING THE ENGLISH LANGUAGE AT NON-РHILOLOGICAL HIGH SCHOOLS
Мақолада тилга ихтисослашмаган ОТМларда хорижий тилларни ўқитишда ўқиш нутқ фаолиятининг тури сифатида таҳлил этилади. Ўқишнинг асосий турларига катта эътибор берили, унинг таснифи ва қисқача тавсифи келтирилади. Шунингдек, мақолада талабаларда замонавий компьютер технологиялар ёрдамида ўқишни ўргатишнинг муҳимлиги таъкидланади.
В статье рассматривается роль чтения как вида речевой деятельности при обучении иностранным языкам в неязыковом вузе. Большое внимание уделяется основным видам чтения, приводится их классификация и краткое описание. В статье подчеркивается важность формирования у обучающихся умений гибкого чтения с помощью использования современных компьютерных технологий.
There is discussed about the role of reading as a form of speech activity in teaching foreign languages at non-philological high schools. Much attention is paid to the basic types of reading, to their classification and a brief description. The article emphasizes the importance of the formation of students’ skills, flexible reading through the use of modern computer technology.
Калит сўзлар: ўқиш, нутқий фаолият, ахборот, хорижий тилда матн, касбий коммуникация, кўз югуртириб ўқиш.
Ключевые слова: чтение, речевая деятельность, информация, текст на иностранном языке, профессиональная коммуникация, просмотровое чтение.
Key words: reading, speech activity, information, text in a foreign language, professional communication, scanning.
Constantly increasing demands to the level of training of modern professionals make the teachers of higher educational institutions increasingly turn to the problem of increasing the effectiveness of training through innovative methods developed at universities. Despite the increased interest of modern man to oral communication in a foreign language, which is explained by the social, political and economic situations, reading continues to be an important source of information. At all stages of learning: school — university — undergraduate, graduate, post-graduate and post-graduate education reading plays a crucial role.
Future engineers often have innovative thinking (the so-called technical turn of mind) sometimes try to isolate themselves from liberal education, including language learning.
The task of the teacher — not just to bring a certain amount of knowledge, and motivate the student interest to the subject, the desire to learn something new in the process of reading, directly or indirectly related to his future profession.
In this sense, the formation and further development of skills of different types of reading in a foreign language should be one of the main challenges facing the foreign language in non-philological high school teachers. Reading is a kind of receptive speech, which contemplates the extraction contained in the text information, including the reconstruction of the process of reading the author’s intention.
We recall the main types of reading classified by an outstanding scientist- linguist K.S.Folomkina, as well as the majority of Russian linguists and Methodists: the viewing, search, trial, of study , although in the foreign methodical literature the representation of different types of reading are a lot more.
Unfortunately, teachers do not always lucidly explain the difference of the above types of reading, and sometimes not at all relate to the issue, considering it a matter of course. Nevertheless, I would like to recall, especially young teachers, of paramount importance, which is reading as a kind of verbal activity in the process of learning foreign languages. Scanning involves getting a general idea of readable material.
Itspurpose is to provide a very general idea of the main theme of the text. Looking through the text in a foreign language, the reader determines for itself whether it’s this perspective or not interested. The result of scanning can be the clearance of the results in the form of a short message, the abstract or summary in a foreign (or native) language.
Skim reading (reading for gist) — is the kind of reading in which the reader happens to familiarize with the information contained in the test. Assuming that a particular text refers to the region of interest of knowledge, is read to get acquainted with the specific content, and interested not only in the overall theme of reading, but also what it says on the various issues. As a rule, this kind of reading accompanied by an assessment of information received: it is clear/not clear; interesting/not interesting, helpful/not helpful, etc. For the removal of such content assessment of reader understanding of the general line of the content (read Conway).
Reading for specific information or scanning is reading or viewing for certain materials in order to find specific information (numbers, dates, schedules, definitions, static data, etc.) The reader already has the information that interested in his position are contained in the view text. Efforts of the reader directed to find the information he needs.
Learner of reading implies the most complete and accurate retrieval of information from a foreign text. In connection with a need to read the text later playback you must give yourself installation on a careful reading, understanding of the received information, its interpretation and subsequent storage. Only careful study of readable test will allow students more fully and authentically interpret the information. The degree of completeness of understanding should reach 90-100 %.
On the basis of the contingent of students in non-language universities (students enrolled in the program specialty, bachelors, undergraduates, graduate students, as well as (through training) of professors — teaching staff of special chairs for the formation and further development of the professional foreign language competences of intercultural dialogue leading place should hold the teaching of reading authentic literature on a particular profile or specialty high school.In determining the content of learning to read in non-language high school, there are appropriate:
• to formulate of a reading goal;
• to choose reading strategy;
• to determine the type of text;
• to identify the lexical, grammatical and graphic support in the text;
• to be prepared to conduct case — analysis (Case Study)
• to argue their position.
In our view, a specialist in his work with the original literature in a foreign language, be sure to need all kinds of reading, which were discussed above, because reading all these kinds of interlinked, but at the same time every kind of reading is aimed at solving specific problems of communication, depending on the type of the text and purpose, which sets the reading. A great help in the process of learning reading have advanced computer technology to move from traditional methods of teaching reading to innovation. It is a branched reading method lies in the fact that in the process of reading a transition from one text to another, and the third, that is, as if the student is immersed in a diverse context, the so-called hypertext. The most concise and precise definition of hypertext formulated T.A.Boldova «Hypertext — is organized by the non-linear text with all text and recognizable features inter-theme content. Hypertext is controlled hyper-textual system with associative information part of the connection through the servers or links that enable access to the point of connection with the text»[2, p. 109].It is necessary to form students’ skills in mastering the hypertext space, that is, the ability to work in a web-network, enabling users to develop virtual projects, create animations and presentations using PowerPoint computer program based on the reading and understanding of the text sufficiently large array in an electronic form. At the same time the students may experience significant problems in orientation in the structure of hypertext space: foreign-language internet sites as well as online resources. The task of the teacher of a foreign language is to form students’ ability to read hypertext, making information from sites in living discourse. Note that under the discourse we understand the actualization of the text under consideration in the event-driven context. Without going into detail on the different interpretations of the discourse, however denote that among researchers dealing with the problems of discourse, there is no single point of view: some interpret the discourse of education at the level of proposals, the other — the use of language in the speech, and others — as an object of study pragma-linguistic. [3,4,5,6].
In our opinion, the most correct definition is the one that was presented to us on the basis of the above study of different viewpoints and definitions of discourse taking place in modern linguistics. Discourse analysis involves the allocation of inseparable components of the structure and content of discourse taking into account the social, psychological, cultural, meaningful and pragmatic aspects of discourse. So, when teaching reading in hypertext space, the basic unit for all kinds of information can be considered in a certain way structured text in which the information is multi-layered and separated into individual components (nodes), which differ in appearance. The determining factor in the quality of hypertext is the ability to select nodes through all sorts of notes to multimedia content node (nodes themselves are determined by the so-called label, name); as well as through informative body of the main text and links. Hypertext has multiple surfaces, but has no beginning and no end. Hypertext links network connects through multiple hypertext, e-texts (where e-text is linearly organized text embedded in a hypertext network) and paratext (network environment of the main text, consisting of texts of different genres and text elements in different design).In the hypertext there are also speakers that appear or automatically pop-up text. These include linear, hierarchical, modular and multi-media texts [2, p.112]. In non-language high school, students master the ability to read different genres of scientific and reference literature, beginning with abstract news reports in refereed collections of scientific works and ending with reading of authentic scientific articles and sometimes books, placed in an electronic form and have numerous references in hypertext space includes a huge data arrays. The interest of young people to high technology contributes greatly to the on-line reading.
Let’s start with the fact that being at school, students sign such a thing as computer science, and therefore it is in the school formed skills of working with computer, which are further developed in the classroom in a foreign language when reading, doing certain tasks, independent work of students. Having entered the university, the students very actively follow the development of information technologies, the emergence of new gadgets, software, mobile devices, and in this sense there is a surprising paradox: on the one hand, technological advances, advances in information technology led to the growing desire of all this tested and apply as much as possible intensively with good intentions, but on the other side of the same-the-art equipment and technical innovations cause in young people, especially with fragile psyche, hyper-excitability, a desire to plunge into the virtual space, get away from the real communication. And yet, despite the «side effect», the presence of various kinds of mobile devices, tablets, laptops in their daily lives of young people plays a very positive role, giving young people the opportunity to read not only stationary (at the university, in the library or at home), but also in other places, where there is on-line access (trains, public transport, metro, cafes).And most importantly, the reading is not done on paper that it is sometimes inconvenient to a large extent due to the volume (magazine, newspaper) or severity (book, collection, and textbook), a particular edition. Those mobile devices stimulate the reading process (and not only fiction). Most high school students come to classes in a foreign language with their tablets, which greatly simplifies the task of the teacher (especially if the group is not in the computer lab), on the teaching of reading in the electronic media. As a rule, students do not read bad the web-pages, they are familiar with the style of presentation, structured, etc., and accordingly teacher takes less time to methodological explanations. Some of the most active students select interesting and relevant publications on the instructions given by the teacher in the professional sense. But sometimes, in spite of the availability of the necessary proficiency in computer technology, often not enough for effective search and read the required information in a foreign language: the important scrupulous preparatory work as a teacher, and the student with the performance of various types of preparatory exercises and explaining the regulations and registration or that text (document) whether a business letter, request, suggestion, complaint, etc. (When it comes to business texts); or instructions, newsletters, patents, etc. (When it comes to technical documentation); articles, reports, monographs (if we are talking about literature).Teacher, after referring to the relevant sites can offer to their students or allow students to choose the search engines and websites that encourage students to professional reading, develop their cognitive abilities and professional skills related to the search of necessary information.
In this sense, the role of training and methodological support developed by the teacher (preferably in electronic form ), which includes not only diverse textual material, but, above all, exercises and tasks, which help the student to master the different types of reading texts, their composition and content structure. Of course, teaching to read in non-language high schools is in accordance with certain stages of learning, and it is not only the steps corresponding to the structural hierarchy of higher education: specialty, undergraduate, graduate, postgraduate, but also, for example, in the bachelor’s necessary to allocate several stages of training .
So, if at the first stage of learning to read needs to perform a large number of exercises aimed at mastering the language material (goal — building skills accurate understanding text units), then in the subsequent stages need to perform tasks that reflect real situations of professional activity of future specialists (writing summaries of articles, the selection of texts to address the problem, understanding of international experience on the basis of reading the articles of the profiling fields of knowledge), and senior stages of the most important is to develop the skills to process derived from the text of scientific information ( we are talking about the original scientific — technical literature by specialty ) interpretation of the statement read to their own position and attitude to read.
In conclusion, it should be emphasized that computer technology is largely contribute to the promotion of interest in reading the original scientific, technical and specialized literature in a foreign language, as well as to help the transition to a qualitatively new level of training of future specialists in non-language high school.
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