Yoqut Qudratillayevna SHARIPOVA
the Department of Theoretical Discipline
Uzbek State World Languages University
THE IMPORTANCE OF PEDAGOGY OF ANDRAGOGY IN TEACHING FOREIGN LANGUAGES
Ҳозирги кунда чет тилларни ўрганишга бўлган эҳтиёж кундан-кунга ортиб бормоқда. Тингловчилар аудиторияси йўналиш ва албатта ёш билан фарқ қиладилар. Йўналиш ва ёш факторларини ҳисобга олган ҳолда педагогика андрагогикани чет тилини ўргатишда интеграция қилиш муҳимдир. Ушбу мақола чет тилларни ўргатишда педагогика андрагогикани қўллашнинг муҳим принципларини таҳлил қилади.
В настоящее время, потребность изучение иностранного языка растет день ото дня. Аудитория учащихся варьируется от направлений и, конечно, в возрасте тоже. Принимая, факторов возраста и направления интеграции педагогику андрагогики к обучению иностранного языка может быть важным. В данной статье анализируются важные принципы андрагогики в обучении иностранному языку.
Nowadays, the demand on learning foreign language is rising day by day. The audience of learners varies from directions and evidently in age too. Taking into consideration factors of age and direction integrating the pedagogy of andragogy to teaching foreign language can be important. This article analyses the important principles of andragogy in teaching foreign language.
Калит сўзлар: педагогика, андрагогика, ёши катта ўрганувчи, тил, тил адрагогики.
Ключевие слова: педагогика, андрагогика, взрослий обучащийся, язык, языковие андрагогики.
Key words: pedagogy, andragogy, adult learner, language, language andragogics.
The contradiction in the teaching of foreign languages for adult learners is that the methodology employed is largely copies the approaches, principles and techniques of teaching children. This is partly justified because every adult is pleased «to remember his childhood.» However, ignoring age characteristics exercises in adulthood reduces the effectiveness of the educational process is the internal resistance of the audience, and even lead to premature termination of employment. Answers too many questions related to foreign language teaching adult learners from the region technique, called the language of andragogy [Knowles 1970].
Language andragogics — a section of methodology of teaching foreign languages, revealing the age features of formation and development of the communicative competence of adult learners, as well as effective methods of pedagogical management of the process. The term «andragogy» refers to the area of knowledge of how to «lead the adults,» as opposed to «pedagogy» to explore ways to lead the children in the educational process [Knowles 1970].
However, problems and specificity of language andragogics underestimated before. Theoretical and practical recommendations of language pedagogy, student-centered school, transferred to the group of adult learners. With the approval of personality-oriented approach to training and education in the pedagogical theory and practice, as well as the relevance of adult education in terms of «education for life” (life-long learning). Language andragogics naturally begins to attract increasing attention. Theoretical-trainers and educators and linguists interested in the answers to numerous questions relating to the teaching foreign language to adult learners [Knowles 1980 pp. 43-44]. These issues relate, for example, to general principles of training of senior mature personality, which cannot be taught «as a child.» Many problems arise in the training of students in vocational colleges where, a foreign language is taught for specific purposes. In order to raise the efficiency of using language in real life the language educators need to know the concepts of the adult learning theory and be able to incorporate them into their teaching style. Educators need to become facilitators of adult education, helping the adult learner to set and achieve goals and guide them in choosing the subjects and courses needed to fulfill these goals. They need to keep in mind that the adult learner needs to know why the course is important to their learning and life situation. The adult learner brings into the continuing educational arena a rich array of experiences that will affect the learning styles and assimilation of knowledge. Adult learners need to be able to apply the knowledge into their life situations. In addition, developing the pedagody of andragogy is also important for businessman, tourists and parents and even for grandparents who want to work and help to their grandchildren.
The psychological study of personality characteristics of adults’ shows that adults — it is not one but several age groups. Despite the differences, «adult» — «increase in the amount of children.» They can play and fantasize in the classroom. Some of them are inclined at times childishly offended and capricious, capable of impulsive and irrational acts need to encourage and rely on individual attention.
Adults, like children, can use emotions to assert it. Everyone wants to be «good» in the eyes of the teacher and others. They appreciate the companionship and often seek personal contacts within the group. Many of them value their status, which they have achieved in the course of life, and some of them are characterized by a painful response to any threat to the existing self-assessment. In other words, adult learners require especially careful attention to them and respect for their identity and position in life, age-appropriate opportunities and natural limitations, a positive response to the establishment of a personal chance of success in learning a foreign language.
Adult learners including high school students, in many respects are building their life experience, and all their activities as they grow older, it becomes increasingly self-organizing. They may resist attempts to intervene in the teacher has made them the choice of content and methods of teaching, protesting against the imposition of alien models and strategies in the classroom. The most active students may demand changes in the content of the teacher training course, the use of various methods of learning or their preferred ways of organizing training. Adults — is formed by the person whose function is to protect leading his «ego», self-realization of their own potential and asserting itself among others. Spontaneously, adult learners already have considerable experience and can compete with the teacher’s right to an ideological position. It brings diversity and potential conflict in the learning content when planning a successful class is only possible if individual positions are taken into account and ensures the success of each of the adult learners, as well as the group as a whole. Personal experience is more important than the success of adult positive evaluation of the teacher, and this is not an accident. Although, they have experienced the memory of emotions which influence in learning words and structures. The success of the class determines the group’s enthusiasm and positive mood that participants take away from the training sessions. The major outcome, combined with a sense of the growth of its communication capabilities makes the desire of adults to continue their education. Thus, the gaining a sense of the result is very important for them. They, unlike the children learn for the sake of the nearest perspectives of knowledge on the principle «or quickly, or never.» Long-term prospects for the application of linguistic knowledge destroy the motivation of teaching adults, and educational courses can be rejected because of its senselessness. Note that intensive language training is always carried out on a «fast and a lot.» This mobility of the speech (fluency) at all times valued in intensive language training is higher than grammatical perfectionism (accuracy). Finally, educational motives of adults always focused on «my goals.» This means that adult learners learn «for itself», «life», «to study,» «for an important exam in my life», «work», «children», but never «for a teacher.»
A feature of the teaching during adulthood is emphasized selective attitude to knowledge, with a clear division into «right — too much.» Adult students openly demonstrate their cognitive preferences, and behavior fully complies with the social role of the «client» in the market of educational services, which not only has the privilege of choice, but always right. Specific features of adult learners define the characteristics of the organization of educational courses of English. Andragogic feature of adult learning can be considered a limitation of foreign language courses in time. Already in the final stage of a full secondary education (high school), in high school, graduate school courses or advanced training foreign language course has a limited time frame and studied more intensely, ensuring progress towards the approaching target, such as language examinations.
The essential requirement of andragogic for foreign language courses for adults is the selection of adequate complexity of the educational program that corresponds to the difficulties of achieving the goal of life. This means that the level of complexity of the language education program may not exceed the degree of availability of life’s purpose. We emphasize that if the broken balance between the difficulty of achieving the goals and complexity of means to achieve it, for example, to prepare for a tourist trip of their own money (simple to achieve a goal in life), the interests of adult learners can be increased language requirements, and training course can be rejected because of its inadequacy. Another requirement for andragogic Language courses for adults — the personal importance of the proposed learning content for students. The content of training is considered to be significant for adults, if it meets their real needs, and formulate a request of vital program. Andragogic requirement for language courses for adults can be considered as its practicality. The course is perceived as practical, if it forms the students’ practice-oriented knowledge (competence), peeled by excessive theorizing and helpful in typical circumstances. Knowledge «either needed or no» — this is often observed categorical selection of adult learners.
Language andragogics implies diversity of language learning, including linguistic resources, socio-cultural horizons, professional sphere, the arts, popular science topics, music and songs, games and entertaining tasks. Diversity of learning a language is not accidental and is determined not only cognitive demands, but also a natural for adult social needs of the most complete unity with the surrounding world. It should be noted that even in educational programs focused on the exam, adult learners respond positively to the language material that awakens the esthetic sense, arouses curiosity, expanding the overall vision, thought-provoking, coaching acumen and reaction. In spite of adult students have the current «self-concept» and, quite often, vulnerable self-esteem. They are counting on the respect of the teacher and others to their identity, regardless of their academic achievements. Hence the formula of «love children», common in the work with the students of junior and middle school age, giving way to the formula «respect for the person» with a maximum tolerance for any manifestation of any of the individual adult learner.
An important feature of pedagogical dialogue in a mature audience interest is teacher training and other participants to the individuality of each of the participants of educational relations. An adult often feels the need for attention to himself, wanting to be noticed. Satisfying this need is possible if the classroom conditions for personal expression, the statement of his position in life, the protection of their own views on life and teachings and, of course, recognizes the right of everyone to be himself. A special place in the pedagogical communication takes reducing the social distance between the teacher and adult students. The authoritarian tone of the teacher, the distance between teacher and students, inaccessibility «of linguistic perfection,» the teacher — these are some of the destructive factors in learning a foreign language for adult learners. The most successful teachers in the classroom reduce interpersonal space between themselves and the audience, picking up on a pedestal achievement of their students, rather than his own «pure English pronunciation.» In this case, language andragogics pays special attention to communication skills and social competence of the teacher — clearly exhibited by successful communication with the older students. The mastering of using effective communication skills, the ability to succinctly and simply explain the complex linguistic phenomena, the readiness to use appropriate registers of his speech that is, to adapt the level of difficulty of their statements and selected lexical and grammatical means, depending on the preparedness of the audience is very important in monitoring the older students. Equally important is the social competence of teachers working with adult learners — skillful communication with the audience. This requires speech initiative and active listening, conversation, maintaining and managing subjects of communication, sense of humor and knowledge of the nuances of cross-cultural interaction, conflict-free and non-judgmental voice contact with adults, mastery of the technique of interactive training. Perhaps the most important aspect of the dialogue of the teacher with the adult audience is the ability to provide students with mature pedagogical support.
Professor L.S Vygotsky examined child development paying great attention to the phenomenon of the «zone of proximal development» and created pedagogical support in the case of cognitive difficulties in childhood [ Vygotsky, L.S. 1978 ]. Accordingly, the zone of proximal development of L.S Vygotsky — is the level of complexity of learning tasks that children can overcome the first by a senior, and then, as they gain experience and develop yourself. Observations show that the phenomenon of the «zone of proximal development» can be fully attributed to the study of a foreign language in adulthood. Moreover, adults as well as children in need of educational support system — the emotional, educational and instrumental:
Emotional support adults — is upbeat tone classes, the overall confidence in the positive results of exercises, fixing attention on achievements rather than failures of regular.
Educational support for adults — additional explanations and comments in case of misunderstanding of educational material, extra time to complete certain tasks, the availability of remote consultations teacher.
Tool support adult — is the choice of adequate complexity of training funds, training support material in the form of charts or tables, the use of gaming opportunities to memorize words and structures, use of electronic aids to their adaptive capacity, including sound files, interactive tasks with the keys of correct answers and automatic prompt, access to the Internet. It is extremely important to feel grown that success belongs to them, not the teacher.
All in all, providing the principles of pedagogy andragogy among adult learners is very important. In addition, it raises the effectiveness of learning the second language for specific purposes in all ages.
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